There are four types of COVID-19 vaccines: here’s how they work

Amazon Best Sellers Discounts and Offers

The fight against COVID-19 has seen vaccine development move at record speed, with more than 170 different vaccines in trials. But how are they different from each other and how will they protect us against the disease?

There are more vaccine candidates simultaneously in the pipeline for COVID-19 than ever before for an infectious disease. All of them are trying to achieve the same thing – immunity to the virus, and some might also be able to stop transmission. They do so by stimulating an immune response to an antigen, a molecule found on the virus. In the case of COVID-19, the antigen is typically the characteristic spike protein found on the surface of the virus, which it normally uses to help it invade human cells.

COVID-19 vaccine types in development

THE FOUR MAIN TYPES OF COVID-19 VACCINE

There are four categories of vaccines in clinical trials: WHOLE VIRUSPROTEIN SUBUNITVIRAL VECTOR and NUCLEIC ACID (RNA AND DNA). Some of them try to smuggle the antigen into the body, others use the body’s own cells to make the viral antigen.

WHOLE VIRUS

Many conventional vaccines use whole viruses to trigger an immune response. There are two main approaches. Live attenuated vaccines use a weakened form of the virus that can still replicate without causing illness. Inactivated vaccines use viruses whose genetic material has been destroyed so they cannot replicate, but can still trigger an immune response. Both types use well-established technology and pathways for regulatory approval, but live attenuated ones may risk causing disease in people with weak immune systems and often require careful cold storage, making their use more challenging in low-resource countries. Inactivated virus vaccines can be given to people with compromised immune systems but might also need cold storage.

PROTEIN SUBUNIT

Subunit vaccines use pieces of the pathogen - often fragments of protein - to trigger an immune response. Doing so minimises the risk of side effects, but it also means the immune response may be weaker. This is why they often require adjuvants, to help boost the immune response. An example of an existing subunit vaccine is the hepatitis B vaccine.

NUCLEIC ACID

Nucleic acid vaccines use genetic material – either RNA or DNA – to provide cells with the instructions to make the antigen. In the case of COVID-19, this is usually the viral spike protein. Once this genetic material gets into human cells, it uses our cells' protein factories to make the antigen that will trigger an immune response. The advantages of such vaccines are that they are easy to make, and cheap. Since the antigen is produced inside our own cells and in large quantities, the immune reaction should be strong. A downside, however, is that so far, no DNA or RNA vaccines have been licensed for human use, which may cause more hurdles with regulatory approval. In addition, RNA vaccines need to be kept at ultra-cold temperatures, -70C or lower, which could prove challenging for countries that don’t have specialised cold storage equipment, particularly low- and middle-income countries. 

VIRAL VECTOR

Viral vector vaccines also work by giving cells genetic instructions to produce antigens. But they differ from nucleic acid vaccines in that they use a harmless virus, different from the one the vaccine is targeting, to deliver these instructions into the cell. One type of virus that has often been used as a vector is adenovirus, which causes the common cold. As with nucleic acid vaccines, our own cellular machinery is hijacked to produce the antigen from those instructions, in order to trigger an immune response. Viral vector vaccines can mimic natural viral infection and should therefore trigger a strong immune response. However, since there is a chance that many people may have already been exposed to the viruses being used as vectors, some may be immune to it, making the vaccine less effective.

Watch for symptoms

People with COVID-19 have had a wide range of symptoms reported – ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness. Symptoms of coronavirus may appear 2-14 days after exposure to the virus. People with these symptoms may have COVID-19:

Fever or chills

Cough

Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing

Fatigue

Muscle or body aches

Headache

New loss of taste or smell

Sore throat

Congestion or runny nose

Nausea or vomiting

Diarrhea

This list does not include all possible symptoms of coronavirus. CDC will continue to update this list as we learn more about COVID-19.

Source: CDC

Other resources on coronavirus disease (COVID-19)

Important Covid-19 Links

This Coronavirus pages are intended solely to inform our clients and online visitors about coronavirus/COvid-19. All facts are from reliable sources like WHO, CDC and respective Government Health Agencies. Readers can either read through the facts which we summarized in this page or go direct to source through the link listed at the bottom of each page.

References:

1. WHO Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic

2. CDC Centers for Disease and Prevention Control

3. Canada Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)

4. Health.com

5. Harvard Health Publishing Harvard Medical School

6. Google Covid-19

7. Wikipedia COVID-19 pandemic 

Supply Chain

1) Nitrile Powder-Free Examination Gloves

2) Medical Gloves

3) Blue Nitrile Disposable Gloves Powder-Free 

4) Disposable Latex Gloves


Stay aware of the latest COVID-19 information by regularly checking updates from WHO and your national and local public health authorities.

Disclaimer: the designations employed and the presentation of the material in publications listed in this database does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of NosePiercings.Com concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.


The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products in publications listed in the database does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by NosePiercings.Com in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.


By listing publications in this database and providing links to external sites does not mean that NosePiercings.Com endorses or recommends those publications or sites, or has verified the content contained within them. The database has been compiled without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of publications included in this database lies with the reader. In no event shall NosePiercings.Com be liable for damages arising from its use.

Comments

What you think?

Recent Articles

  1. Riche Niche: Health | Lifestyle | Fashion | Marketing | Technology

    Sep 05, 21 12:51 PM

    Our Riche Niche blog is the easiest way to stay up-to-date with the latest news, trends and articles published on this site.

    Read More

  2. Nose Ring Piercings

    Aug 28, 21 02:56 PM

    All about nose ring piercings.

    Read More

  3. Nose piercings - Information and Unique Design

    Aug 28, 21 02:41 PM

    Our nose piercings bring uniqueness and pride to you. Discover new nose piercing insights on healing, infections and proper care.

    Read More

  4. Muhyiddin Yassin appointed Malaysian caretaker PM

    Aug 16, 21 03:26 AM

    Muhyiddin Yassin appointed Malaysian caretaker PM after resignation is accepted by the king

    Read More

  5. Airlines reroute flights to avoid Afghanistan airspace

    Aug 16, 21 03:00 AM

    Airlines reroute flights to avoid Afghanistan airspace

    Read More

  6. Malaysia PM set to quit with no clear successor in line

    Aug 16, 21 01:54 AM

    Malaysia PM set to quit with no clear successor in line

    Read More

  7. Malaysia PM at palace to meet king amid reports he will resign

    Aug 16, 21 01:39 AM

    Malaysia PM at palace to meet king amid reports he will resign

    Read More

  8. My gf pierced my nose and ears and made me bride at birthday.

    Aug 15, 21 08:23 PM

    I am a male and I stay in an apartment in Mumbai alone and I am doing a Job.My girl friend is a beautician.One day My gf came to my room and wanted to

    Read More

  9. My mom pierced my nose

    Aug 15, 21 08:19 PM

    I am a boy.My mom pierced my left nosetrill at 5years old because that time some female friend pierced their nose and I said to my mom to pierced my nose

    Read More

  10. My gf pierced my nose and ears and made me bride at birthday.

    Aug 15, 21 08:18 PM

    I am a male and I stay in an apartment in Mumbai alone and I am doing a Job.My girl friend is a beautician.One day My gf came to my room and wanted to

    Read More

  11. Which Cat Toys do You Want?

    Aug 13, 21 10:36 AM

    Finding the best cat toys can be difficult unless you remember the following tips and techniques.

    Read More

  12. Piercings Festivals Around the World

    Aug 11, 21 07:32 PM

    A collection of piercings festivals around the world for spiritual, religious and other a cult piercings practices.

    Read More

  13. Hide Nose Piercing With Ease

    Aug 07, 21 12:51 PM

    Need to hide nose piercing evidence? Read on and find out the most effective tricks and techniques to hide your facial piercing

    Read More

  14. New nose stud trends and designs

    Aug 07, 21 12:35 PM

    Discover new nose stud designs, 22k gold with unique, Indian designs that are very uncommon in the western market, available here

    Read More

  15. Infección del Piercing de Nariz

    Aug 07, 21 12:20 PM

    Tratando su infección del piercing de nariz – la prevención es el mejor tratamiento, pero ¿qué debe hacer si ya tiene la infección?

    Read More

  16. Piercing Pagoda

    Aug 07, 21 12:12 PM

    Piercing pagoda is an online store and also sells through specialty kiosks all over the U.S. and Puerto Rico. Started in 1969, the kiosks came to be known for their quality piercings,

    Read More

  17. Prince Albert Piercing - The Dressing Ring

    Aug 07, 21 03:10 AM

    The Prince Albert piercing was called the “Dressing Ring,” by the Victorian dealers of men’s clothing in the early centuries.

    Read More

  18. I have a Nose Ring Mask

    Aug 07, 21 02:06 AM

    I have a Nose Ring Mask

    Read More

  19. Mental Health of Students Must Figure in Restarting Classes

    Aug 07, 21 12:50 AM

    Mental Health of Students Must Figure in Restarting Classes

    Read More

  20. The Pet Boost: Furry Friends Help Seniors Feel Less Lonely

    Aug 06, 21 02:24 AM

    The Pet Boost: Furry Friends Help Seniors Feel Less Lonely

    Read More

  21. Popular Cat Names

    Aug 06, 21 02:18 AM

    Finding the best cat names for your new cat can be complicated but also very fun and enjoying.

    Read More

  22. COVID-19 Fallout: Americans Changing Their Higher Ed Plans

    Aug 05, 21 01:05 PM

    COVID-19 Fallout: Americans Changing Their Higher Ed Plans

    Read More

  23. Travel Advisors Smooth the Way for Post-Pandemic Getaways

    Aug 05, 21 12:46 PM

    Travel Advisors Smooth the Way for Post-Pandemic Getaways

    Read More

  24. Building Trust in the Science of Vaccines

    Aug 05, 21 12:17 PM

    Building Trust in the Science of Vaccines

    Read More

  25. Male Cat Names - How to Pick One!

    Aug 04, 21 12:05 PM

    How to Pick a Male Cat Names

    Read More

  26. BEST NONSTICK PANS MATERIAL

    Aug 04, 21 11:32 AM

    BEST NONSTICK PANS MATERIAL

    Read More

  27. Boadisk

    Aug 04, 21 11:12 AM

    check this review on boadisk

    Read More

  28. Female Cat Names How to Pick the Best One!

    Aug 02, 21 02:06 PM

    How to pick a Female Cat Names

    Read More

  29. Airport Taxi Service Near Me: Get the Best Service and Rates!

    Aug 02, 21 01:35 PM

    Airport Taxi Service Near Me: Get the Best Service and Rates!

    Read More

  30. Unusual Piercing at Thai Vegetarian Festival

    Aug 02, 21 01:17 PM

    The religious devotees cut themselves with swords, piercing their cheeks with sharp objects and committing other painful acts to purify themselves and take on the sins of the community.

    Read More

  31. Translation and interpretation!

    Aug 02, 21 12:48 PM

    Translation and interpretation! We will introduce the features and differences of each by a professional translation agency.

    Read More

  32. Plastic Kills Corona Virus in 1 Hour!

    Aug 02, 21 10:12 AM

    Plastic Kills Corona Virus in 1 Hour!

    Read More

  33. Anti Virus Face Mask: Mask that kills Bacteria and Virus!

    Aug 01, 21 10:05 PM

    Anti Virus Face Mask: Mask that kills Bacteria and Virus!

    Read More

  34. Know the Symptoms of SARS and How to Save Yourself From the Virus

    Aug 01, 21 06:07 AM

    Know the Symptoms of SARS and How to Save Yourself From the Virus

    Read More

  35. Ear Piercings Don't take it for granted

    Aug 01, 21 12:08 AM

    Ear piercings is so common that many of us take it for granted!

    Read More

  36. Top Cat Breeds to Consider.

    Jul 31, 21 11:17 PM

    https://www.nose-piercings.com/cat-breeds.html Not sure which cat breeds are best for you? Making the decision to own a cat can be a wonderful decision

    Read More

  37. Unique Cat Breeds to Consider

    Jul 30, 21 10:36 PM

    It can be hard to determine which cat breeds will be the best for you and your family so you need to explore the different types and what their needs are.

    Read More

  38. Persian cat: What you need to know!

    Jul 30, 21 09:56 PM

    Learning about Persian cats can help you decide if you want one or not.

    Read More

  39. Siamese Cat: Might not be the Best Cat for Everyone!

    Jul 30, 21 09:45 PM

    Siamese cats are beautiful but they might not be the best cat for everyone. Learning more about them can help you decide.

    Read More

  40. Different Styles of Wearing Sari

    Jul 30, 21 10:26 AM

    Different Styles of Wearing Sari, Here's a list of some of the styles you can try with your saree.

    Read More

  41. nose ring chain joke

    Jul 29, 21 08:47 PM

    I was hanging out with a blonde friend of mine when we saw a woman walk by us with a nose ring attached to an earring by a chain. My friend said, Wouldn't

    Read More

  42. nose ring and chain funny!

    Jul 29, 21 08:46 PM

    I was hanging out with a blonde friend of mine when we saw a woman walk by us with a nose ring attached to an earring by a chain. My friend said, Wouldn't

    Read More

  43. How to Drape a Saree: Fancy Saree Styles

    Jul 29, 21 06:12 AM

    How to Drape a Saree: Fancy Saree Styles

    Read More

  44. How to Wear Saree

    Jul 29, 21 06:07 AM

    How to Wear Saree: Trendy Saree Wearing Styles!

    Read More

  45. How to Tie a Sari: Fancy and Trendy Saree Wearing Styles!

    Jul 29, 21 05:44 AM

    How to Tie a Sari: Fancy and Trendy Saree Wearing Styles!

    Read More

  46. How to Wear a Sari: Fancy and Trendy Saree Wearing Styles!

    Jul 29, 21 05:32 AM

    How to Wear a Sari: Fancy and Trendy Saree Wearing Styles!

    Read More

  47. Infection Nose Piercing The Symptoms!

    Jul 26, 21 01:47 AM

    Infection Nose Piercing The Symptoms!

    Read More

  48. Is my nose piercing ring is sinking in?

    Jul 25, 21 04:43 AM

    Is my nose piercing ring is sinking in? Or just swollen?

    Read More

  49. Covid-19 Variants of Concern and Variants of Interest

    Jul 22, 21 11:00 AM

    Covid-19 Variants of Concern and Variants of Interest

    Read More

  50. Free attorney for car accident

    Jul 20, 21 12:20 PM

    Free attorney for car accident

    Read More

  51. Septum Piercing with Nose Ring

    Jul 20, 21 10:42 AM

    Septum Piercing with Nose Ring

    Read More

Sponsored Pages

Subscribe to our nose-piercings newsletter to stay up-to-date with the latest news, trends and articles published on this site.